To meet the requirements of the Animal Rule, the efficacy of monotherapy with ANTHRASIL® (Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human)) for inhalational anthrax was evaluated in blinded studies using rabbit and nonhuman primate models. Animals in both studies were randomized to treatment groups exposed to ~ 200 LD50 Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) spores by the aerosol route to induce inhalational anthrax. Rabbits (N = 50/group) were treated with either 15 U/kg ANTHRASIL or a volume-matching dose of IGIV after disease onset as determined by the detection of bacterial toxin in the blood. At the end of the study, survival rates were 2% (1 of 48) in the IGIV control group, and 26% (13 of 50) in the ANTHRASIL-treated group (p = 0.0009). Similarly, ANTHRASIL was effective in cynomolgus monkeys (N = 16/group) when administered therapeutically after the onset of toxemia, with 6% survival in the IGIV control and a dose-related increase in survival of 36%, 43%, and 70% with 7.5, 15 or 30 U/kg doses of ANTHRASIL, respectively. These studies formed the basis for approval of ANTHRASIL by FDA under the Animal Rule.
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