Eilat virus host range restriction is present at multiple levels of the virus life cycle

Farooq Nasar, Rodion V. Gorchakov, Robert B. Tesh, Scott Weaver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates, including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. This ability of most alphaviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is essential for their maintenance in nature. Recently, a new alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described, and in contrast to all other mosquito-borne viruses, it is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. Investigations into the nature of its host range restriction showed the inability of genomic EILV RNA to replicate in vertebrate cells. Here, we investigated whether the EILV host range restriction is present at the entry level and further explored the viral factors responsible for the lack of genomic RNA replication. Utilizing Sindbis virus (SINV) and EILV chimeras, we show that the EILV vertebrate host range restriction is also manifested at the entry level. Furthermore, the EILV RNA replication restriction is independent of the 3' untranslated genome region (UTR). Complementation experiments with SINV suggested that RNA replication is restricted by the inability of the EILV nonstructural proteins to form functional replicative complexes. These data demonstrate that the EILV host range restriction is multigenic, involving at least one gene from both nonstructural protein (nsP) and structural protein (sP) open reading frames (ORFs). As EILV groups phylogenetically within the mosquito-borne virus clade of pathogenic alphaviruses, our findings have important evolutionary implications for arboviruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1404-1418
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume89
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

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Host Specificity
Life Cycle Stages
host range
life cycle (organisms)
Viruses
Alphavirus
viruses
Vertebrates
Sindbis virus
vertebrates
Culicidae
Sindbis Virus
genomics
vertebrate viruses
RNA
arboviruses
Arboviruses
chimerism
structural proteins
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

Cite this

Eilat virus host range restriction is present at multiple levels of the virus life cycle. / Nasar, Farooq; Gorchakov, Rodion V.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott.

In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2015, p. 1404-1418.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nasar, Farooq ; Gorchakov, Rodion V. ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Weaver, Scott. / Eilat virus host range restriction is present at multiple levels of the virus life cycle. In: Journal of Virology. 2015 ; Vol. 89, No. 2. pp. 1404-1418.
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