Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children. However, effective treatment against RSV is unavailable. tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are a recently discovered family of non-coding RNAs. We made an early observation that RSV infection causes significant induction of tRFs, which are mainly derived from the 5’-end of mature tRNAs (tRF5). However, their functions and biogenesis mechanism are not fully understood. Herein, we identified an enzyme responsible for the induction of a functional tRF5 derived from tRNA-Gln-CTG (tRF5-GlnCTG). We found that tRF5-GlnCTG promotes RSV replication and its induction, assessed by Northern blot and a new qRT-PCR-based method, is regulated by ribonuclease ELAC2. ELAC2-mediated tRF5 induction has never been reported. We also found that ELAC2 is associated with RSV N and NS1 proteins. Given the fact that tRF5-GlnCTG plays a role in RSV replication, the identification of ELAC2 being responsible for tRF5-GlnCTG induction could provide new insights into therapeutic strategy development against RSV infection.
- viral replication
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)