Embryology and pathophysiology of the Chiari I and II malformations: A comprehensive review

Mohammadali Mohajel Shoja, Jaspreet Johal, W. Jerry Oakes, R. Shane Tubbs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

16 Scopus citations


Although the Chiari malformations are well-studied and described developmental anomalies, there remains some incongruity in regards to their underlying etiologies. A number of theories have been proposed with the purpose of accounting for the embryology and pathogenesis of the Chiari I and II malformations and their associated complications and clinical syndromes. The present review aims to review the pertinent literature for all of the main theories that have been proposed, and outline their validity and relevance to our contemporary understanding of these anomalies. Clin. Anat. 31:202–215, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-215
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Anatomy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
  • cerebrospinal fluid pressure
  • etiology
  • hydrocephalus
  • mechanism
  • syringomyelia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology

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