Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States

Edmond J. Byrnes, Wenjun Li, Yonathan Lewit, Hansong Ma, Kerstin Voelz, Ping Ren, Dee A. Carter, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Robert J. Bildfell, Robin C. May, Joseph Heitman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

213 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy hosts and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts. The highest incidence for this disease is on Vancouver Island, Canada, where an outbreak is expanding into neighboring regions including mainland British Columbia and the United States. This outbreak is caused predominantly by C. gattii molecular type VGII, specifically VGIIa/major. In addition, a novel genotype, VGIIc, has emerged in Oregon and is now a major source of illness in the region. Through molecular epidemiology and population analysis of MLST and VNTR markers, we show that the VGIIc group is clonal and hypothesize it arose recently. The VGIIa/IIc outbreak lineages are sexually fertile and studies support ongoing recombination in the global VGII population. This illustrates two hallmarks of emerging outbreaks: high clonality and the emergence of novel genotypes via recombination. In macrophage and murine infections, the novel VGIIc genotype and VGIIa/major isolates from the United States are highly virulent compared to similar non-outbreak VGIIa/major-related isolates. Combined MLST-VNTR analysis distinguishes clonal expansion of the VGIIa/major outbreak genotype from related but distinguishable less-virulent genotypes isolated from other geographic regions. Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalPLoS Pathogens
Volume6
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cryptococcus gattii
Disease Outbreaks
Virulence
Genotype
Genetic Recombination
British Columbia
Molecular Epidemiology
Immunocompromised Host
Islands
Population
Canada
Macrophages
Incidence
Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Immunology
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Byrnes, E. J., Li, W., Lewit, Y., Ma, H., Voelz, K., Ren, P., ... Heitman, J. (2010). Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States. PLoS Pathogens, 6(4), 1-16.

Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States. / Byrnes, Edmond J.; Li, Wenjun; Lewit, Yonathan; Ma, Hansong; Voelz, Kerstin; Ren, Ping; Carter, Dee A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Bildfell, Robert J.; May, Robin C.; Heitman, Joseph.

In: PLoS Pathogens, Vol. 6, No. 4, 04.2010, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Byrnes, EJ, Li, W, Lewit, Y, Ma, H, Voelz, K, Ren, P, Carter, DA, Chaturvedi, V, Bildfell, RJ, May, RC & Heitman, J 2010, 'Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States', PLoS Pathogens, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1-16.
Byrnes, Edmond J. ; Li, Wenjun ; Lewit, Yonathan ; Ma, Hansong ; Voelz, Kerstin ; Ren, Ping ; Carter, Dee A. ; Chaturvedi, Vishnu ; Bildfell, Robert J. ; May, Robin C. ; Heitman, Joseph. / Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States. In: PLoS Pathogens. 2010 ; Vol. 6, No. 4. pp. 1-16.
@article{bdaacc853dff4da78180337bf7ea9d7e,
title = "Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States",
abstract = "Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy hosts and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts. The highest incidence for this disease is on Vancouver Island, Canada, where an outbreak is expanding into neighboring regions including mainland British Columbia and the United States. This outbreak is caused predominantly by C. gattii molecular type VGII, specifically VGIIa/major. In addition, a novel genotype, VGIIc, has emerged in Oregon and is now a major source of illness in the region. Through molecular epidemiology and population analysis of MLST and VNTR markers, we show that the VGIIc group is clonal and hypothesize it arose recently. The VGIIa/IIc outbreak lineages are sexually fertile and studies support ongoing recombination in the global VGII population. This illustrates two hallmarks of emerging outbreaks: high clonality and the emergence of novel genotypes via recombination. In macrophage and murine infections, the novel VGIIc genotype and VGIIa/major isolates from the United States are highly virulent compared to similar non-outbreak VGIIa/major-related isolates. Combined MLST-VNTR analysis distinguishes clonal expansion of the VGIIa/major outbreak genotype from related but distinguishable less-virulent genotypes isolated from other geographic regions. Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak.",
author = "Byrnes, {Edmond J.} and Wenjun Li and Yonathan Lewit and Hansong Ma and Kerstin Voelz and Ping Ren and Carter, {Dee A.} and Vishnu Chaturvedi and Bildfell, {Robert J.} and May, {Robin C.} and Joseph Heitman",
year = "2010",
month = "4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "1--16",
journal = "PLoS Pathogens",
issn = "1553-7366",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the Northwest United States

AU - Byrnes, Edmond J.

AU - Li, Wenjun

AU - Lewit, Yonathan

AU - Ma, Hansong

AU - Voelz, Kerstin

AU - Ren, Ping

AU - Carter, Dee A.

AU - Chaturvedi, Vishnu

AU - Bildfell, Robert J.

AU - May, Robin C.

AU - Heitman, Joseph

PY - 2010/4

Y1 - 2010/4

N2 - Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy hosts and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts. The highest incidence for this disease is on Vancouver Island, Canada, where an outbreak is expanding into neighboring regions including mainland British Columbia and the United States. This outbreak is caused predominantly by C. gattii molecular type VGII, specifically VGIIa/major. In addition, a novel genotype, VGIIc, has emerged in Oregon and is now a major source of illness in the region. Through molecular epidemiology and population analysis of MLST and VNTR markers, we show that the VGIIc group is clonal and hypothesize it arose recently. The VGIIa/IIc outbreak lineages are sexually fertile and studies support ongoing recombination in the global VGII population. This illustrates two hallmarks of emerging outbreaks: high clonality and the emergence of novel genotypes via recombination. In macrophage and murine infections, the novel VGIIc genotype and VGIIa/major isolates from the United States are highly virulent compared to similar non-outbreak VGIIa/major-related isolates. Combined MLST-VNTR analysis distinguishes clonal expansion of the VGIIa/major outbreak genotype from related but distinguishable less-virulent genotypes isolated from other geographic regions. Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak.

AB - Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy hosts and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts. The highest incidence for this disease is on Vancouver Island, Canada, where an outbreak is expanding into neighboring regions including mainland British Columbia and the United States. This outbreak is caused predominantly by C. gattii molecular type VGII, specifically VGIIa/major. In addition, a novel genotype, VGIIc, has emerged in Oregon and is now a major source of illness in the region. Through molecular epidemiology and population analysis of MLST and VNTR markers, we show that the VGIIc group is clonal and hypothesize it arose recently. The VGIIa/IIc outbreak lineages are sexually fertile and studies support ongoing recombination in the global VGII population. This illustrates two hallmarks of emerging outbreaks: high clonality and the emergence of novel genotypes via recombination. In macrophage and murine infections, the novel VGIIc genotype and VGIIa/major isolates from the United States are highly virulent compared to similar non-outbreak VGIIa/major-related isolates. Combined MLST-VNTR analysis distinguishes clonal expansion of the VGIIa/major outbreak genotype from related but distinguishable less-virulent genotypes isolated from other geographic regions. Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954075537&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954075537&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 20421942

AN - SCOPUS:77954075537

VL - 6

SP - 1

EP - 16

JO - PLoS Pathogens

JF - PLoS Pathogens

SN - 1553-7366

IS - 4

ER -