Empiric antibiotic therapy for seawater injuries

A four-seasonal analysis

Jennifer S. Kargel, Vanessa M. Dimas, Dennis S. Kao, John P. Heggers, Peter Chang, Linda Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Previous seawater studies found Vibrio species associated with morbidity, suggesting that seawater-contaminated wounds should be treated early. The purpose of this study was to identify common seawater pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities to provide empiric antibiotic therapy until patient-specific culture results are available. METHODS: Seasonal samples were collected from 25 Galveston beach locations and cultured. Colonies were identified and sensitivities were performed using MicroScan Positive and Negative Breakpoint Combo Panels. RESULTS: In the fall (28.3°C), of 15 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin. In the winter (11.1°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Enterobacter agglomerans, E. faecium, and E. coli. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, levofloxacin, penicillin, and ampicillin. In the spring (26.6°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were E. coli, Bacillus species, and E. faecium. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and levofloxacin. In the summer (29.7°C), of 17 bacterial species isolated, the three most common isolates were Bacillus species, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to cefepime, lomefloxacin, and levofloxacin. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, levofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: Cultured pathogens were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, or levofloxacin. The authors recommend a combination of penicillin or ampicillin with levofloxacin for empiric antibiotic coverage for seawater-contaminated injuries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1249-1255
Number of pages7
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume121
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Levofloxacin
Seawater
Ampicillin
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Penicillins
Wounds and Injuries
Enterococcus faecium
Vancomycin
Therapeutics
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Escherichia coli
Bacillus
Enterobacter cloacae
Enterobacter
Vibrio
Chloramphenicol
Morbidity
cefepime
lomefloxacin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Empiric antibiotic therapy for seawater injuries : A four-seasonal analysis. / Kargel, Jennifer S.; Dimas, Vanessa M.; Kao, Dennis S.; Heggers, John P.; Chang, Peter; Phillips, Linda.

In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 121, No. 4, 04.2008, p. 1249-1255.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kargel, Jennifer S. ; Dimas, Vanessa M. ; Kao, Dennis S. ; Heggers, John P. ; Chang, Peter ; Phillips, Linda. / Empiric antibiotic therapy for seawater injuries : A four-seasonal analysis. In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2008 ; Vol. 121, No. 4. pp. 1249-1255.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Previous seawater studies found Vibrio species associated with morbidity, suggesting that seawater-contaminated wounds should be treated early. The purpose of this study was to identify common seawater pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities to provide empiric antibiotic therapy until patient-specific culture results are available. METHODS: Seasonal samples were collected from 25 Galveston beach locations and cultured. Colonies were identified and sensitivities were performed using MicroScan Positive and Negative Breakpoint Combo Panels. RESULTS: In the fall (28.3°C), of 15 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin. In the winter (11.1°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Enterobacter agglomerans, E. faecium, and E. coli. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, levofloxacin, penicillin, and ampicillin. In the spring (26.6°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were E. coli, Bacillus species, and E. faecium. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and levofloxacin. In the summer (29.7°C), of 17 bacterial species isolated, the three most common isolates were Bacillus species, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to cefepime, lomefloxacin, and levofloxacin. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, levofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: Cultured pathogens were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, or levofloxacin. The authors recommend a combination of penicillin or ampicillin with levofloxacin for empiric antibiotic coverage for seawater-contaminated injuries.",
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T2 - A four-seasonal analysis

AU - Kargel, Jennifer S.

AU - Dimas, Vanessa M.

AU - Kao, Dennis S.

AU - Heggers, John P.

AU - Chang, Peter

AU - Phillips, Linda

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Previous seawater studies found Vibrio species associated with morbidity, suggesting that seawater-contaminated wounds should be treated early. The purpose of this study was to identify common seawater pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities to provide empiric antibiotic therapy until patient-specific culture results are available. METHODS: Seasonal samples were collected from 25 Galveston beach locations and cultured. Colonies were identified and sensitivities were performed using MicroScan Positive and Negative Breakpoint Combo Panels. RESULTS: In the fall (28.3°C), of 15 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin. In the winter (11.1°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Enterobacter agglomerans, E. faecium, and E. coli. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, levofloxacin, penicillin, and ampicillin. In the spring (26.6°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were E. coli, Bacillus species, and E. faecium. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and levofloxacin. In the summer (29.7°C), of 17 bacterial species isolated, the three most common isolates were Bacillus species, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to cefepime, lomefloxacin, and levofloxacin. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, levofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: Cultured pathogens were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, or levofloxacin. The authors recommend a combination of penicillin or ampicillin with levofloxacin for empiric antibiotic coverage for seawater-contaminated injuries.

AB - BACKGROUND: Previous seawater studies found Vibrio species associated with morbidity, suggesting that seawater-contaminated wounds should be treated early. The purpose of this study was to identify common seawater pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities to provide empiric antibiotic therapy until patient-specific culture results are available. METHODS: Seasonal samples were collected from 25 Galveston beach locations and cultured. Colonies were identified and sensitivities were performed using MicroScan Positive and Negative Breakpoint Combo Panels. RESULTS: In the fall (28.3°C), of 15 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin. In the winter (11.1°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were Enterobacter agglomerans, E. faecium, and E. coli. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, levofloxacin, penicillin, and ampicillin. In the spring (26.6°C), of 14 species isolated, the three most common isolates were E. coli, Bacillus species, and E. faecium. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and cefepime. Most Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and levofloxacin. In the summer (29.7°C), of 17 bacterial species isolated, the three most common isolates were Bacillus species, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to cefepime, lomefloxacin, and levofloxacin. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, levofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: Cultured pathogens were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, or levofloxacin. The authors recommend a combination of penicillin or ampicillin with levofloxacin for empiric antibiotic coverage for seawater-contaminated injuries.

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