Background: Gastroparesis patients may undergo pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty for chronic refractory symptoms. However, some patients have persistent symptoms. It is unknown if balloon dilation may improve their symptoms. Aims: We aimed to (1) assess if pyloric through-the-scope (TTS) balloon dilation results in symptom improvement in gastroparesis patients with suboptimal response to pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty and (2) determine endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) characteristics of these patients before dilation. Methods: Patients with severe gastroparesis refractory to pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty seen from 2/2019 to 3/2020 underwent pyloric TTS dilation after assessing the pyloric characteristics using EndoFLIP. Patients completed Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) pre-procedurally, and GCSI and Clinical Patient Grading Assessment Scale (CPGAS) on follow-ups. Results: Thirteen (ten females) patients (mean age 45.2 ± 5.1 years) with severe gastroparesis symptoms (mean GCSI total score 3.4 ± 0.3) after pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty underwent pyloric TTS dilation. Overall, there was improvement in symptoms at 1-month follow-up (mean GCSI total score 3.0 ± 0.4, mean CPGAS score 1.6 ± 0.5, p < 0.05 for both), with five (38%) patients reporting symptoms somewhat/moderately better. The patients with symptom improvement had lower pre-dilation pyloric EndoFLIP distensibility at 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml than patients with little/no improvement (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: In gastroparesis patients with refractory symptoms after pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty, pyloric TTS dilation improved symptoms in about a third of the patients. Patients with symptom improvement had lower pre-dilation pyloric distensibility on EndoFLIP suggesting incomplete myotomy, pyloric muscle regeneration, or pyloric stricture. Pyloric EndoFLIP followed by TTS dilation seems to be a promising treatment for some patients with gastroparesis symptoms refractory to pyloromyotomy/pyloroplasty.
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