Epidemiology and patterns of musculoskeletal motorcycle injuries in the USA

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Abstract

Introduction: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA) has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs) have been studied, to the author's knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods: Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay (LOS), specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. Results: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7% of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01%), spine (16.21%), and forearm (10.14%) fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09%), skull fractures (8.23%), face fractures (13.66%), and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79%). There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001) and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001). Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.997), associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05). All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001) and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.58). Conclusion: Compared with historical reports, the prevalence of skull, face, spine, and pelvis fractures have increased in American motorcycle crashes. Compared to recent European studies, the incidence of USA skull and face fractures is much higher, while the incidence of USA spine and pelvis fractures is more comparable, however, this is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number114
JournalF1000Research
Volume4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 12 2015

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Motorcycles
Epidemiology
Head Protective Devices
Wounds and Injuries
Length of Stay
Skull Fractures
Glasgow Coma Scale
Injury Severity Score
Spine
Pelvis
Demography
Hemothorax
Automobiles
Fibula
Trauma Centers
Incidence
Orthopedics
Pneumothorax
Hospital Mortality
Tibia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

@article{8e44939407fa4fbbb66d3fe2cb8fe055,
title = "Epidemiology and patterns of musculoskeletal motorcycle injuries in the USA",
abstract = "Introduction: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA) has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs) have been studied, to the author's knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods: Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay (LOS), specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. Results: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7{\%} of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01{\%}), spine (16.21{\%}), and forearm (10.14{\%}) fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09{\%}), skull fractures (8.23{\%}), face fractures (13.66{\%}), and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79{\%}). There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001) and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001). Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95{\%} CI: 0.98, 0.997), associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95{\%} CI: 1.00, 1.05). All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001) and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95{\%} CI: 1.13, 4.58). Conclusion: Compared with historical reports, the prevalence of skull, face, spine, and pelvis fractures have increased in American motorcycle crashes. Compared to recent European studies, the incidence of USA skull and face fractures is much higher, while the incidence of USA spine and pelvis fractures is more comparable, however, this is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.",
author = "Burns, {Sean T.} and Zbigniew Gugala and Carlos Jimenez and William Mileski and Ronald Lindsey",
year = "2015",
month = "5",
day = "12",
doi = "10.12688/f1000research.4995.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "4",
journal = "F1000Research",
issn = "2046-1402",
publisher = "F1000 Research Ltd.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Epidemiology and patterns of musculoskeletal motorcycle injuries in the USA

AU - Burns, Sean T.

AU - Gugala, Zbigniew

AU - Jimenez, Carlos

AU - Mileski, William

AU - Lindsey, Ronald

PY - 2015/5/12

Y1 - 2015/5/12

N2 - Introduction: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA) has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs) have been studied, to the author's knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods: Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay (LOS), specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. Results: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7% of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01%), spine (16.21%), and forearm (10.14%) fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09%), skull fractures (8.23%), face fractures (13.66%), and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79%). There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001) and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001). Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.997), associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05). All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001) and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.58). Conclusion: Compared with historical reports, the prevalence of skull, face, spine, and pelvis fractures have increased in American motorcycle crashes. Compared to recent European studies, the incidence of USA skull and face fractures is much higher, while the incidence of USA spine and pelvis fractures is more comparable, however, this is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.

AB - Introduction: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA) has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs) have been studied, to the author's knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods: Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay (LOS), specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. Results: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7% of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01%), spine (16.21%), and forearm (10.14%) fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09%), skull fractures (8.23%), face fractures (13.66%), and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79%). There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001) and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001). Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.997), associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05). All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001) and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.58). Conclusion: Compared with historical reports, the prevalence of skull, face, spine, and pelvis fractures have increased in American motorcycle crashes. Compared to recent European studies, the incidence of USA skull and face fractures is much higher, while the incidence of USA spine and pelvis fractures is more comparable, however, this is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.

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