Epidemiology of Affective Disorders: Psychosocial Risk Factors

Robert M.A. Hirschfeld, Christine K. Cross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Data from recent epidemiological studies involving psychosocial risk factors for affective disorders are reviewed. The results of these studies are divided into the categories of depressive symptoms, bipolar depressive disorder, and nonbipolar depressive disorder. When the data are examined using these categories, remarkable consistency in psychosocial risk factors for depressive symptoms and nonbipolar depressive disorder is observed, suggesting possible continuity between these conditions. Psychosocial risk factors for bipolar disorder differ substantially from those identified for depressive symptoms and nonbipolar depressive disorder and, therefore, provide further support for the bipolar-nonbipolar distinction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-46
Number of pages12
JournalArchives of general psychiatry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1982


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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