Esophageal Cancer: Tumor-Node-Metastasis Staging

Sonia L. Betancourt-Cuellar, Marcelo F.K. Benveniste, Diana P. Palacio, Wayne L. Hofstetter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Esophageal cancer is an uncommon malignancy that ranks sixth in terms of mortality worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype worldwide whereas adenocarcinoma represents the majority of cases in North America, Australia, and Europe. Esophageal cancer is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control TNM system and has separate classifications for the clinical, pathologic, and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groups. The determination of clinical TNM is based on complementary imaging modalities, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy/endoscopic ultrasound; endoscopic ultrasound–fine-needle aspiration; computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis; and fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-229
Number of pages11
JournalRadiologic Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Computed tomography
  • Endoscopic ultrasound
  • Esophageal cancer
  • FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography
  • TNM staging system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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