Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries: A comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts

Lauren C. White, Brian McKinnon, C. Anthony Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Study design: Case series with chart review. Setting: Level 1 trauma center. Subjects and methods: Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. Results: 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). Conclusions: ATVs and golf carts are often exempt from the safety features and regulations required of motor vehicles, and ATV and golf cart accidents represent a significant portion of pediatric traumas. This study found that ATV and golf cart accidents contribute significantly to craniofacial trauma requiring hospitalization, with resultant morbidity and mortality. Further investigation of these injuries and their prevention in the pediatric population is needed before efforts to promote effective safety regulations for such vehicles in the future can be addressed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)414-417
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Volume77
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Golf
Pediatrics
Wounds and Injuries
Accidents
Head Protective Devices

Keywords

  • All-terrain vehicles
  • Children
  • Craniofacial trauma
  • Golf carts
  • Temporal bone fractures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries : A comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts. / White, Lauren C.; McKinnon, Brian; Hughes, C. Anthony.

In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Vol. 77, No. 3, 01.03.2013, p. 414-417.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Study design: Case series with chart review. Setting: Level 1 trauma center. Subjects and methods: Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. Results: 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4{\%} of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9{\%} of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7{\%}) and golf cart traumas (85.3{\%}). 58.6{\%} of all ATV related trauma and 69.1{\%} of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1{\%} of the ATV traumas and 54.4{\%} of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5{\%} of ATV accidents and 7.4{\%} of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018{\%}) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). Conclusions: ATVs and golf carts are often exempt from the safety features and regulations required of motor vehicles, and ATV and golf cart accidents represent a significant portion of pediatric traumas. This study found that ATV and golf cart accidents contribute significantly to craniofacial trauma requiring hospitalization, with resultant morbidity and mortality. Further investigation of these injuries and their prevention in the pediatric population is needed before efforts to promote effective safety regulations for such vehicles in the future can be addressed.",
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N2 - Objective: To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Study design: Case series with chart review. Setting: Level 1 trauma center. Subjects and methods: Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. Results: 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). Conclusions: ATVs and golf carts are often exempt from the safety features and regulations required of motor vehicles, and ATV and golf cart accidents represent a significant portion of pediatric traumas. This study found that ATV and golf cart accidents contribute significantly to craniofacial trauma requiring hospitalization, with resultant morbidity and mortality. Further investigation of these injuries and their prevention in the pediatric population is needed before efforts to promote effective safety regulations for such vehicles in the future can be addressed.

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KW - Children

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KW - Temporal bone fractures

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