P-glycoprotein (Pgp), the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter, exhibits a drug (substrate)-stimulatable ATPase activity, and vanadate (Vi) inhibits this activity by stably trapping the nucleoside diphosphate in the Pgp·ADP·Vi conformation. We recently demonstrated that Vi-induced 8-azido-[α-32P]ADP trapping into Pgp in the absence of substrate occurs both in the presence of 8-azido-[α-32P]ATP (following 8-azido-ATP hydrolysis) or 8-azido-[α-32P]ADP (without hydrolysis) and, the transition state intermediates generated under either condition are functionally indistinguishable. In this study, we compare the effect of substrates on Vi-induced 8-azido-[α-32P]ADP trapping into Pgp under both non-hydrolysis and hydrolysis conditions. We demonstrate that whereas substrates stimulate the Vi-induced trapping of 8-azido-[α-32P]ADP under hydrolysis conditions, they strongly inhibit Vi-induced trapping under non-hydrolysis conditions. This inhibition is concentration-dependent, follows first order kinetics, and is effected by drastically decreasing the affinity of nucleoside diphosphate for Pgp during trapping. However, substrates do not affect the binding of nucleoside diphosphate in the absence of Vi, indicating that the substrate-induced conformation exerts its effect at a step distinct from nucleoside diphosphate-binding. Our results demonstrate that during the catalytic cycle of Pgp, although the transition state, Pgp·ADP·Pi (Vi), can be generated both via the hydrolysis of ATP or by directly providing ADP to the system, in the presence of substrate the reaction is driven in the forward direction, i.e. hydrolysis of ATP. These data suggest that substrate-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by Pgp is a vectorial process.
ASJC Scopus subject areas