In Africa, Old World Primates are involved in the maintenance of sylvatic circulation of ZIKV. However, in Brazil, the hosts for the sylvatic cycle remain unknown. We hypothesized that free-living NHPs might play a role in urban/periurban ZIKV dynamics, thus we undertook an NHP ZIKV investigation in two cities in Brazil. We identified ZIKV-positive NHPs and sequences obtained were phylogenetically related to the American lineage of ZIKV. Additionally, we inoculated four C. penicillata with ZIKV and our results demonstrated that marmosets had a sustained viremia. The natural and experimental infection of NHPs with ZIKV, support the hypothesis that NHPs may be a vertebrate host in the maintainance of ZIKV transmission/circulation in urban tropical settings. Further studies are needed to understand the role they may play in maintaining the urban cycle of the ZIKV and how they may be a conduit in establishing an enzootic transmission cycle in tropical Latin America.
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