Evolution of HIV resistance mutations in patients maintained on a stable treatment regimen after virologic failure

Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Monique Ferguson, Xueliang Han, Greg McMillan, Marty St Clair, Keith A. Pappa, Daniel R. McClernon, William A. O'Brien

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19 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: We compared the rate of emergence of thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and major protease inhibitor mutations in adherent patients who remained on stable treatment with a thymidine analogue and/or protease inhibitor after the onset of virologic failure. DESIGN: Follow-up genotypic resistance testing was done using archived plasma obtained from patients having 0 or 1 TAM and/or 0 or 1 major protease inhibitor resistance mutation at the onset of virologic failure. RESULTS: The median duration of observed failure was 691 days. There were 41 thymidine analogue regimens and 34 protease inhibitor regimens; concomitant ritonavir was used 4 times. New major protease inhibitor mutations emerged more rapidly than did new TAMs (P = 0.0019); new TAMs emerged more rapidly in thymidine analogue regimens that did not include lamivudine (P = 0.0073). The emergence of TAMs and major protease inhibitor mutations did not differ if lamivudine was not part of the thymidine analogue regimen. The evolution of CD4 cell counts and plasma viral loads (pVLs) during virologic failure was similar regardless of whether or not a new TAM or major protease inhibitor mutations emerged or, for thymidine analogue-containing regimens, whether lamivudine was or was not used. CONCLUSIONS: Major protease inhibitor mutations arose more frequently and rapidly than did TAMs in patients with sustained virologic failure who received lamivudine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-549
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number5
StatePublished - Dec 2006



  • HIV resistance
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Resistance mutations
  • Reverse transcriptase inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Immunology

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