Exercise, amino acids, and aging in the control of human muscle protein synthesis

Dillon K. Walker, Jared M. Dickinson, Kyle L. Timmerman, Micah J. Drummond, Paul T. Reidy, Christopher Fry, David M. Gundermann, Blake Rasmussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this review, we discuss recent research in the field of human skeletal muscle protein metabolism characterizing the acute regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by exercise, amino acid nutrition, and aging. Resistance exercise performed in the fasted state stimulates mixed MPS within 1 h after exercise, which can remain elevated for 48 h. We demonstrate that the activation of mTORC1 signaling (and subsequently enhanced translation initiation) is required for the contraction-induced increase in MPS. In comparison, low-intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise stimulates MPS and mTORC1 signaling to an extent similar to traditional, high-intensity resistance exercise. We also show that mTORC1 signaling is required for the essential amino acid (EAA)-induced increase in MPS. Ingestion of EAAs (or protein) shortly after resistance exercise enhances MPS and mTORC1 signaling compared with resistance exercise or EAAs alone. In older adults, the ability of the skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is impaired. For example, in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise, older adults are less able to activate mTORC1 or increase MPS during the first 24 h of postexercise recovery. However, BFR exercise can overcome this impairment. Aging is not associated with a reduced response to EAAs provided the EAA content is sufficient. Therefore, we propose that exercise combined with EAA should be effective not only in improving muscle repair and growth in response to training in athletes, but that strategies such as EAA combined with resistance exercise (or BFR exercise) may be very useful as a countermeasure for sarcopenia and other clinical conditions associated with muscle wasting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2249-2258
Number of pages10
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume43
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011

Fingerprint

Muscle Proteins
Exercise
Amino Acids
Essential Amino Acids
Skeletal Muscle
Sarcopenia
Muscles
Athletes
mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1
Eating

Keywords

  • essential amino acids
  • leucine
  • mtorc1
  • protein turnover
  • Sarcopenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Exercise, amino acids, and aging in the control of human muscle protein synthesis. / Walker, Dillon K.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Drummond, Micah J.; Reidy, Paul T.; Fry, Christopher; Gundermann, David M.; Rasmussen, Blake.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 43, No. 12, 12.2011, p. 2249-2258.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Walker, DK, Dickinson, JM, Timmerman, KL, Drummond, MJ, Reidy, PT, Fry, C, Gundermann, DM & Rasmussen, B 2011, 'Exercise, amino acids, and aging in the control of human muscle protein synthesis', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2249-2258. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318223b037
Walker, Dillon K. ; Dickinson, Jared M. ; Timmerman, Kyle L. ; Drummond, Micah J. ; Reidy, Paul T. ; Fry, Christopher ; Gundermann, David M. ; Rasmussen, Blake. / Exercise, amino acids, and aging in the control of human muscle protein synthesis. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2011 ; Vol. 43, No. 12. pp. 2249-2258.
@article{133bb456cd4147d09fa95527b4baada7,
title = "Exercise, amino acids, and aging in the control of human muscle protein synthesis",
abstract = "In this review, we discuss recent research in the field of human skeletal muscle protein metabolism characterizing the acute regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by exercise, amino acid nutrition, and aging. Resistance exercise performed in the fasted state stimulates mixed MPS within 1 h after exercise, which can remain elevated for 48 h. We demonstrate that the activation of mTORC1 signaling (and subsequently enhanced translation initiation) is required for the contraction-induced increase in MPS. In comparison, low-intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise stimulates MPS and mTORC1 signaling to an extent similar to traditional, high-intensity resistance exercise. We also show that mTORC1 signaling is required for the essential amino acid (EAA)-induced increase in MPS. Ingestion of EAAs (or protein) shortly after resistance exercise enhances MPS and mTORC1 signaling compared with resistance exercise or EAAs alone. In older adults, the ability of the skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is impaired. For example, in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise, older adults are less able to activate mTORC1 or increase MPS during the first 24 h of postexercise recovery. However, BFR exercise can overcome this impairment. Aging is not associated with a reduced response to EAAs provided the EAA content is sufficient. Therefore, we propose that exercise combined with EAA should be effective not only in improving muscle repair and growth in response to training in athletes, but that strategies such as EAA combined with resistance exercise (or BFR exercise) may be very useful as a countermeasure for sarcopenia and other clinical conditions associated with muscle wasting.",
keywords = "essential amino acids, leucine, mtorc1, protein turnover, Sarcopenia",
author = "Walker, {Dillon K.} and Dickinson, {Jared M.} and Timmerman, {Kyle L.} and Drummond, {Micah J.} and Reidy, {Paul T.} and Christopher Fry and Gundermann, {David M.} and Blake Rasmussen",
year = "2011",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1249/MSS.0b013e318223b037",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "43",
pages = "2249--2258",
journal = "Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exercise, amino acids, and aging in the control of human muscle protein synthesis

AU - Walker, Dillon K.

AU - Dickinson, Jared M.

AU - Timmerman, Kyle L.

AU - Drummond, Micah J.

AU - Reidy, Paul T.

AU - Fry, Christopher

AU - Gundermann, David M.

AU - Rasmussen, Blake

PY - 2011/12

Y1 - 2011/12

N2 - In this review, we discuss recent research in the field of human skeletal muscle protein metabolism characterizing the acute regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by exercise, amino acid nutrition, and aging. Resistance exercise performed in the fasted state stimulates mixed MPS within 1 h after exercise, which can remain elevated for 48 h. We demonstrate that the activation of mTORC1 signaling (and subsequently enhanced translation initiation) is required for the contraction-induced increase in MPS. In comparison, low-intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise stimulates MPS and mTORC1 signaling to an extent similar to traditional, high-intensity resistance exercise. We also show that mTORC1 signaling is required for the essential amino acid (EAA)-induced increase in MPS. Ingestion of EAAs (or protein) shortly after resistance exercise enhances MPS and mTORC1 signaling compared with resistance exercise or EAAs alone. In older adults, the ability of the skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is impaired. For example, in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise, older adults are less able to activate mTORC1 or increase MPS during the first 24 h of postexercise recovery. However, BFR exercise can overcome this impairment. Aging is not associated with a reduced response to EAAs provided the EAA content is sufficient. Therefore, we propose that exercise combined with EAA should be effective not only in improving muscle repair and growth in response to training in athletes, but that strategies such as EAA combined with resistance exercise (or BFR exercise) may be very useful as a countermeasure for sarcopenia and other clinical conditions associated with muscle wasting.

AB - In this review, we discuss recent research in the field of human skeletal muscle protein metabolism characterizing the acute regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by exercise, amino acid nutrition, and aging. Resistance exercise performed in the fasted state stimulates mixed MPS within 1 h after exercise, which can remain elevated for 48 h. We demonstrate that the activation of mTORC1 signaling (and subsequently enhanced translation initiation) is required for the contraction-induced increase in MPS. In comparison, low-intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise stimulates MPS and mTORC1 signaling to an extent similar to traditional, high-intensity resistance exercise. We also show that mTORC1 signaling is required for the essential amino acid (EAA)-induced increase in MPS. Ingestion of EAAs (or protein) shortly after resistance exercise enhances MPS and mTORC1 signaling compared with resistance exercise or EAAs alone. In older adults, the ability of the skeletal muscle to respond to anabolic stimuli is impaired. For example, in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise, older adults are less able to activate mTORC1 or increase MPS during the first 24 h of postexercise recovery. However, BFR exercise can overcome this impairment. Aging is not associated with a reduced response to EAAs provided the EAA content is sufficient. Therefore, we propose that exercise combined with EAA should be effective not only in improving muscle repair and growth in response to training in athletes, but that strategies such as EAA combined with resistance exercise (or BFR exercise) may be very useful as a countermeasure for sarcopenia and other clinical conditions associated with muscle wasting.

KW - essential amino acids

KW - leucine

KW - mtorc1

KW - protein turnover

KW - Sarcopenia

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=81355161595&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=81355161595&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318223b037

DO - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318223b037

M3 - Article

VL - 43

SP - 2249

EP - 2258

JO - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

JF - Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 12

ER -