Background: Patterns of diffusion of TAVR in the United States (U.S.) and its relation to racial disparities in TAVR utilization remain unknown. Methods: We identified TAVR hospitals in the continental U.S. from 2012-2017 using Medicare database and mapped them to Hospital Referral Regions (HRR). We calculated driving distance from each residential ZIP code to the nearest TAVR hospital and calculated the proportion of the U.S. population, in general and by race, that lived <100 miles driving distance from the nearest TAVR center. Using a discrete time hazard logistic regression model, we examined the association of hospital and HRR variables with the opening of a TAVR program. Results: The number of TAVR hospitals increased from 230 in 2012 to 540 in 2017. The proportion of the U.S. population living <100 miles from nearest TAVR hospital increased from 89.3% in 2012 to 94.5% in 2017. Geographic access improved for all racial and ethnic subgroups: Whites (84.1%-93.6%), Blacks (90.0%- 97.4%), and Hispanics (84.9%-93.7%). Within a HRR, the odds of opening a new TAVR program were higher among teaching hospitals (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.88) and hospital bed size (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.37-1.52). Market-level factors associated with new TAVR programs were proportion of Black (per 1%, OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89) and Hispanic (per 1%, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.90) residents, the proportion of hospitals within the HRR that already had a TAVR program (per 10%, OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11), P <.01 for all. Conclusion: The expansion of TAVR programs in the U.S. has been accompanied by an increase in geographic coverage for all racial subgroups. Further study is needed to determine reasons for TAVR underutilization in Blacks and Hispanics.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine