Blood-brain barrier breakdown and associated vascular hyperpermeability leads to vasogenic edema in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tight junctions maintain blood-brain barrier integrity; their disruption in TBI holds significant promise for diagnosis and treatment. A controlled cortical impactor was used for TBI in mouse studies. Blood was collected 1 h after injury and sent for antibody microarray analysis. Twenty human subjects with radiographic evidence of TBI were enrolled and blood collected within 48 h of admission. Control subjects were individuals with nontrauma diagnoses. The subjects were matched by age and gender. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed on each TBI and control sample for tight junction–associated proteins (TJPs), inflammatory markers, and S100β. Plasma was used to conduct in vitro monolayer permeability studies with human brain endothelial cells. S100β and the TJP occludin were significantly elevated in TBI plasma in both the murine and human studies. Monolayer permeability studies showed increased hyperpermeability in TBI groups. Plasma from TBI subjects increases microvascular hyperpermeability in vitro. TJPs in the blood may be a potential biomarker for TBI.
- blood-brain barrier
- microvascular hyperpermeability
- tight junction proteins
- traumatic brain injury
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