Factors Associated with Death in Critically Ill Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the US

Shruti Gupta, Salim S. Hayek, Wei Wang, Lili Chan, Kusum S. Mathews, Michal L. Melamed, Samantha K. Brenner, Amanda Leonberg-Yoo, Edward J. Schenck, Jared Radbel, Jochen Reiser, Anip Bansal, Anand Srivastava, Yan Zhou, Anne Sutherland, Adam Green, Alexandre M. Shehata, Nitender Goyal, Anitha Vijayan, Juan Carlos Q. VelezShahzad Shaefi, Chirag R. Parikh, Justin Arunthamakun, Ambarish M. Athavale, Allon N. Friedman, Samuel A.P. Short, Zoe A. Kibbelaar, Samah Abu Omar, Andrew J. Admon, John P. Donnelly, Hayley B. Gershengorn, Miguel A. Hernán, Matthew W. Semler, David E. Leaf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

668 Scopus citations


Importance: The US is currently an epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, yet few national data are available on patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of critical illness from COVID-19. Objectives: To assess factors associated with death and to examine interhospital variation in treatment and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study assessed 2215 adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 65 hospitals across the US from March 4 to April 4, 2020. Exposures: Patient-level data, including demographics, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction, and hospital characteristics, including number of ICU beds. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with death and to examine interhospital variation in treatment and outcomes. Results: A total of 2215 patients (mean [SD] age, 60.5 [14.5] years; 1436 [64.8%] male; 1738 [78.5%] with at least 1 chronic comorbidity) were included in the study. At 28 days after ICU admission, 784 patients (35.4%) had died, 824 (37.2%) were discharged, and 607 (27.4%) remained hospitalized. At the end of study follow-up (median, 16 days; interquartile range, 8-28 days), 875 patients (39.5%) had died, 1203 (54.3%) were discharged, and 137 (6.2%) remained hospitalized. Factors independently associated with death included older age (=80 vs <40 years of age: odds ratio [OR], 11.15; 95% CI, 6.19-20.06), male sex (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.19-1.90), higher body mass index (=40 vs <25: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25), coronary artery disease (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.02), active cancer (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.35-3.43), and the presence of hypoxemia (Pao2:Fio2<100 vs =300 mm Hg: OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 2.11-4.08), liver dysfunction (liver Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 2-4 vs 0: OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.30-5.25), and kidney dysfunction (renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 4 vs 0: OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46-4.05) at ICU admission. Patients admitted to hospitals with fewer ICU beds had a higher risk of death (<50 vs =100 ICU beds: OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 2.16-4.99). Hospitals varied considerably in the risk-adjusted proportion of patients who died (range, 6.6%-80.8%) and in the percentage of patients who received hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, and other treatments and supportive therapies. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified demographic, clinical, and hospital-level risk factors that may be associated with death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and can facilitate the identification of medications and supportive therapies to improve outcomes..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1436-1447
Number of pages12
JournalJAMA Internal Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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