Fetal Membrane Biomarker Network Diversity and Disease Functions Induced by Intra-amniotic Pathogens

Geeta Bhat, Morgan R. Peltier, Tariq Ali Syed, Cayce O. Drobek, George Saade, Ramkumar Menon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Problem: Intra-amniotic pathogens and by-products activate innate immune responses encompassing multitudes of signaling molecules and pathways that can result in spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). This study investigates fetal membrane response to bacterial stimulation using a bioinformatics approach. Method of study: Dysregulated biomarker (IL1-β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) data from fetal membranes at term stimulated with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, E. coli, Group B Streptococci, Polyporhans gingivalis, or Gardnerella vaginalis with 50% (v/v) amniotic fluid (AF) were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: In racially stratified analysis, networks representing late-stage immune inflammation were seen in African-Americans in AF absence. Inflammation was dominant in AF presence as well. In Caucasians, late-stage immune response was dominant with AF, but not in its absence. Conclusions: Fetal membrane biofunctions in response to bacteria reflect early- and late-stage innate immune defenses that vary based on the presence of AF and subject race.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)124-133
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013


  • Cytokines
  • Fetal membranes
  • Inflammation
  • Intra-amniotic infection
  • Prematurity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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