Five-Factor Modified Frailty Index as a Predictor of Complications Following Total Ankle Arthroplasty

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1 Scopus citations


Introduction: Ankle arthritis adversely affects patients’ function and quality of life. Treatment options for end-stage ankle arthritis include total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). A 5-item modified frailty index (mFI-5) has predicted adverse outcomes following multiple orthopaedic procedures; this study evaluated its suitability as a risk-stratification tool in patients undergoing TAA. Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was retrospectively reviewed for patients undergoing TAA between 2011 and 2017. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to investigate frailty as a possible predictor of postoperative complications. Results: In total, 1035 patients were identified. When comparing patients with an mFI-5 score of 0 versus ≥2, overall complication rates significantly increased from 5.24% to 19.38%, 30-day readmission rate increased from 0.24% to 3.1%, adverse discharge rate increased from 3.81% to 15.5%, and wound complications increased from 0.24% to 1.55%. After multivariate analysis, mFI-5 score remained significantly associated with patients’ risk of developing any complication (P =.03) and 30-day readmission rate (P =.005). Conclusions: Frailty is associated with adverse outcomes following TAA. The mFI-5 can help identify patients who are at an elevated risk of sustaining a complication, allowing for improved decision-making and perioperative care when considering TAA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalFoot and Ankle Specialist
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • ankle replacement
  • frailty
  • outcome measures
  • patient readmission
  • postoperative complications
  • total ankle arthroplasty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Podiatry
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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