Introduction: In the summer of 2007, the Mars Society conducted a four-month simulated Mars exploration mission at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), in the Canadian High Arctic on Devon Island, Nunavut. In addition to an intense mission profile of research, the team also operated on the Martian 'sol', (39 minutes longer than the 24 hour Earth day), for over a month, to evaluate the effects on crew psychophysiology or mission operations. Methods: Team members completed the AstroPCI personality inventory as well as an online questionnaire battery dealing with stress, coping and group functioning on five occasions throughout the mission (pre and monthly). Results: Descriptive analyses indicated differences between individual coping styles across time as well as differences in how the genders coped. Overall, stress increased for males while decreasing for females. Males used consistently more Avoidant coping while females utilized Task coping and Social Emotional coping. Conclusions: Simulations situated in environments that are characterized by prolonged true isolation and real environmental challenges appear to provoke true demands for adaptation rather than temporary situational accommodation as has been evidenced by shorter simulations situated in laboratories or more benign environments. Both complimentary and compensatory coping patterns were in evidence.