Force feedback vessel ligation simulator in knot-tying proficiency training

Justin L. Hsu, James R. Korndorffer, Kimberly M. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Background Tying gentle secure knots is an important skill. We have developed a force feedback simulator that measures force exerted during knot tying. This pilot study examines the benefits of this simulator in a deliberate practice curriculum. Methods The simulator consists of silastic tubing with a force sensor. Knot quality was assessed using digital caliper measurement. Participants performed 10 vessel ligations as a pretest, then were shown force readings and tied knots until reaching proficiency targets. Average peak forces precurriculum and postcurriculum were compared using Student t test. Results Participants exerted significantly less force after completing the curriculum (.61 N ±.22 vs 1.42 N ±.53, P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-415
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Curriculum
  • Force feedback
  • Knot-tying
  • Simulation
  • Surgical training
  • Vessel ligation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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