BACKGROUND: Exsanguination from extremity vascular injuries is the most common potentially survivable injury on the battlefield. Advances in treatment have dramatically improved survival, increasing the need to address associated morbidities including ischemia-reperfusion injury and extremity compartment syndrome. Despite advances, hemorrhagic shock (HS) requiring fluid resuscitation is common. Plasma-based resuscitation for the treatment of HS has been shown to reduce edema and injury in tissues other than muscle. The objective of this study was to determine if fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation offered protection in a rat model of combined HS and skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 37.5% arterial hemorrhage, producing HS, followed by 3 hours of tourniquet application. Animals were not resuscitated or resuscitated with either FFP (equal to the shed blood volume) or lactated Ringer's solution (three times shed volume) after 30 minutes of ischemia. They were euthanized 24 hours later, and their muscles were analyzed for edema (wet weight-dry weight). Routine histology was performed on muscle cross-sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and graded using a semiquantitative grading system. RESULTS: All animals developed HS; the mortality rate was 50% in no resuscitation rats. FFP reduced edema by 13% (p = 0.02) compared with lactated Ringer's solution. Pathology scores were not different between treatment groups. CONCLUSION: FFP resuscitation reduces edema following muscle injury, decreasing the risk of developing extremity compartment syndrome.
- Compartment syndrome
- Resuscitation fluid
- Volume expander
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine