Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages

Christina J. van Lier, Bethany L. Tiner, Sadhana Chauhan, Vladimir Motin, Eric C. Fitts, Matthew Huante, Janice Endsley, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Jian Sha, Ashok Chopra

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Abstract

We recently characterized the δlpp δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the δlpp δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the δ. pla single and the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant of Y.pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune responses in the host similar to that of WT CO92, which are highly desirable in a live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-38
Number of pages12
JournalMicrobial Pathogenesis
Volume80
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

Fingerprint

Yersinia pestis
Plasminogen Activators
Lipoproteins
Peptide Hydrolases
Macrophages
Genes
Attenuated Vaccines
Plague
Toll-Like Receptor 2
Zymosan
Gene Deletion
Interleukin-6
Nitric Oxide
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Cell Line
Survival

Keywords

  • Alveolar macrophages
  • Braun lipoprotein
  • Human monocyte-derived macrophages
  • Innate immunity
  • Intracellular survival
  • Plasminogen activator protease
  • Yersinia pestis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

@article{4f8cda30555b47998a28011e3d56ed95,
title = "Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages",
abstract = "We recently characterized the δlpp δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the δlpp δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the δ. pla single and the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant of Y.pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune responses in the host similar to that of WT CO92, which are highly desirable in a live-attenuated vaccine candidate.",
keywords = "Alveolar macrophages, Braun lipoprotein, Human monocyte-derived macrophages, Innate immunity, Intracellular survival, Plasminogen activator protease, Yersinia pestis",
author = "{van Lier}, {Christina J.} and Tiner, {Bethany L.} and Sadhana Chauhan and Vladimir Motin and Fitts, {Eric C.} and Matthew Huante and Janice Endsley and Duraisamy Ponnusamy and Jian Sha and Ashok Chopra",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.micpath.2015.02.005",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "80",
pages = "27--38",
journal = "Microbial Pathogenesis",
issn = "0882-4010",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages

AU - van Lier, Christina J.

AU - Tiner, Bethany L.

AU - Chauhan, Sadhana

AU - Motin, Vladimir

AU - Fitts, Eric C.

AU - Huante, Matthew

AU - Endsley, Janice

AU - Ponnusamy, Duraisamy

AU - Sha, Jian

AU - Chopra, Ashok

PY - 2015/3/1

Y1 - 2015/3/1

N2 - We recently characterized the δlpp δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the δlpp δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the δ. pla single and the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant of Y.pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune responses in the host similar to that of WT CO92, which are highly desirable in a live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

AB - We recently characterized the δlpp δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the δlpp δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the δ. pla single and the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the δ. lpp δ. pla double mutant of Y.pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune responses in the host similar to that of WT CO92, which are highly desirable in a live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

KW - Alveolar macrophages

KW - Braun lipoprotein

KW - Human monocyte-derived macrophages

KW - Innate immunity

KW - Intracellular survival

KW - Plasminogen activator protease

KW - Yersinia pestis

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DO - 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.02.005

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VL - 80

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JO - Microbial Pathogenesis

JF - Microbial Pathogenesis

SN - 0882-4010

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