The G-quadruplex is a non-canonical DNA structure biologically significant in DNA replication, transcription and telomere stability. To date, only G4s with all guanines originating from the same strand of DNA have been considered in the context of the human nuclear genome. Here, I discuss interstrand topological configurations of G-quadruplex DNA, consisting of guanines from both strands of genomic DNA; an algorithm is presented for predicting such structures. I have identified over 550,000 non-overlapping interstrand Gquadruplex forming sequences in the human genome - significantly more than intrastrand configurations. Functional analysis of interstrand G-quadruplex sites shows strong association with transcription initiation, the results are consistent with the XPB and XPD transcriptional helicases binding only to G-quadruplex DNA with interstrand topology. Interstrand quadruplexes are also enriched in origin of replication sites. Several topology classes of interstrand quadruplex-forming sequences are possible, and different topologies are enriched in different types of structural elements. The list of interstrand quadruplex forming sequences, and the computer program used for their prediction are available at the web address http://moment.utmb.edu/allquads.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)