This review summarizes the main advances made in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and medical treatment of gallstone disease in the past year. Whether rapid weight reduction can precipitate gallstone formation is still debated. Phospholipase A2-II seems to play an interesting role in the pathogenesis of multiple cholesterol stone formation, and ursodeoxycholic acid may partially halt the formation of multiple cholesterol stones by mediating an anti-inflammatory effect on the gallbladder. Bacterial infections may contribute to gallstone formation, perhaps through secretion of biofilm. The combination of ursodeoxycholic acid and simvastatin for the resolution and prevention of gallstones is promising, but larger studies are needed.
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