It is proposed that conformational changes induced in proteins by oxidation can lead to loss of activity or protein aggregation through exposure of hydrophobic residues and alteration in surface hydrophobicity. Because increased oxidative stress and protein aggregation are consistently observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we used a 4,4′-dianilino-1,1′-binaphthyl-5,5′-disulfonic acid (BisANS) photolabeling approach to monitor changes in protein unfolding in vivo in skeletal muscle proteins in ALS mice. We find two major proteins, creatine kinase (CK) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), conformationally affected in the ALS G93A mouse model concordant with a 43% and 41% reduction in enzyme activity, respectively. This correlated with changes in conformation and activity that were detected in CK and GAPDH with in vitro oxidation. Interestingly, we found that GAPDH, but not CK, is conformationally and functionally affected in a longer-lived ALS model (H46R/H48Q), exhibiting a 22% reduction in enzyme activity. We proposed a reaction mechanism for BisANS with nucleophilic amino acids such as lysine, serine, threonine, and tyrosine, and BisANS was found to be primarily incorporated to lysine residues in GAPDH. We identified the specific BisANS incorporation sites on GAPDH in nontransgenic (NTg), G93A, and H46R/H48Q mice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Four BisANS-containing sites (K52, K104, K212, and K248) were found in NTg GAPDH, while three out of four of these sites were lost in either G93A or H46R/H48Q GAPDH. Conversely, eight new sites (K2, K63, K69, K114, K183, K251, S330, and K331) were found on GAPDH for G93A, including one common site (K114) for H46R/H48Q, which is not found on GAPDH from NTg mice. These data show that GAPDH is differentially affected structurally and functionally in vivo in accordance with the degree of oxidative stress associated with these two models of ALS.
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- protein oxidation
- protein unfolding
ASJC Scopus subject areas