Gender-related variations in pathophysiological responses to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and sepsis

Kento Homma, Keibun Liu, Yosuke Niimi, Satoshi Fukuda, Yasutaka Hirasawa, Tuvshintugs Baljinnyam, Nikolay Bazhanov, Ranjana Nawgiri, Palawinnage Muthukumarana, Rudolf Lucas, Donald Prough, Perenlei Enkhbaatar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In preclinical studies, the protective effects of female sex hormones and the immunosuppressive effects of male sex hormones were demonstrated. However, gender-related differences in multiorgan failure and mortality in clinical trials have not been consistently explained. This study aims to investigate gender-related differences in the development and progression of sepsis using a clinically relevant ovine model of sepsis. Adult Merino male (n=7) and female (n=7) sheep were surgically prepared with multiple catheters before the study. To induce sepsis, bronchoscopy instilled methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into sheep's lungs. The time from the bacterial inoculation until the modified Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (q-SOFA) score became positive was measured and analyzed primarily. We also compared the SOFA score between these male and female sheep over time. Survival, hemodynamic changes, the severity of pulmonary dysfunction, and microvascular hyperpermeability were also compared. The time from the onset of bacterial inoculation to the positive q-SOFA in male sheep was significantly shorter than in female sheep. Mortality was not different between these sheep (14% vs. 14%). There were no significant differences in hemodynamic changes and pulmonary function between the two groups at any time point. Similar changes in hematocrit, urine output, and fluid balance were observed between females and males. The present data indicate that the onset of multiple organ failure and progression of sepsis is faster in male sheep than in female sheep, even though the severity of cardiopulmonary function is comparable over time. Further studies are warranted to validate the above results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)810-819
Number of pages10
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2023


  • Animal models
  • MRSA pneumonia
  • gender
  • sepsis
  • sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Emergency Medicine


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