Recently, we reported the discovery and characterization of Tulane virus (TV), a novel rhesus calicivirus (CV) (T. Farkas, K. Sestak, C. Wei, and X. Jiang, J. Virol. 82:5408-5416, 2008). TV grows well in tissue culture, and it represents a new genus within Caliciviridae, with the proposed name of Recovirus. We also reported a high prevalence of CV antibodies in macaques of the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) colony, including anti-norovirus (NoV), anti-sapovirus (SaV), and anti-TV (T. Farkas, J. Dufour, X. Jiang, and K. Sestak, J. Gen. Virol. 91:734-738, 2010). To broaden our knowledge about CV infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP), 500 rhesus macaque stool samples collected from breeding colony TNPRC macaques were tested for CVs. Fifty-seven (11%) samples contained recovirus isolates. In addition, one NoV was detected. Phylogenetic analysis classified the recovirus isolates into two genogroups and at least four genetic types. The rhesus NoV isolate was closely related to GII human NoVs. TV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 88% of serum samples obtained from primate caretakers. Binding and plaque reduction assays revealed the involvement of type A and B histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in TV infection. Taken together, these findings indicate the zoonotic potential of primate CVs. The discovery of a genetically diverse and prevalent group of primate CVs and remarkable similarities between rhesus enteric CVs and human NoVs opens new possibilities for research involving in vitro and in vivo models of human NoV gastroenteritis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science