Genome sequence of the model medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

Shilin Chen, Jiang Xu, Chang Liu, Yingjie Zhu, David R. Nelson, Shiguo Zhou, Chunfang Li, Lizhi Wang, Xu Guo, Yongzhen Sun, Hongmei Luo, Ying Li, Jingyuan Song, Bernard Henrissat, Anthony Levasseur, Jun Qian, Jianqin Li, Xiang Luo, Linchun Shi, Liu HeLi Xiang, Xiaolan Xu, Yunyun Niu, Qiushi Li, Mira V. Han, Haixia Yan, Jin Zhang, Haimei Chen, Aiping Lv, Zhen Wang, Mingzhu Liu, David C. Schwartz, Chao Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

439 Scopus citations


Ganoderma lucidum is a widely used medicinal macrofungus in traditional Chinese medicine that creates a diverse set of bioactive compounds. Here we report its 43.3-Mb genome, encoding 16,113 predicted genes, obtained using next-generation sequencing and optical mapping approaches. The sequence analysis reveals an impressive array of genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYPs), transporters and regulatory proteins that cooperate in secondary metabolism. The genome also encodes one of the richest sets of wood degradation enzymes among all of the sequenced basidiomycetes. In all, 24 physical CYP gene clusters are identified. Moreover, 78 CYP genes are coexpressed with lanosterol synthase, and 16 of these show high similarity to fungal CYPs that specifically hydroxylate testosterone, suggesting their possible roles in triterpenoid biosynthesis. The elucidation of the G. lucidum genome makes this organism a potential model system for the study of secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation in medicinal fungi.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number913
JournalNature Communications
StatePublished - Jul 6 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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