Genotoxic effects of carotenoid breakdown products in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

Nilesh M. Kalariya, Kota V. Ramana, Satish K. Srivastava, Frederik J.G.M. Van Kuijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Purpose: To investigate the genotoxic effects of lutein (LBP) and β -carotene breakdown products (β -apo-8-carotenal, BA8C) and the preventive role of GSH in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Methods: LBP- and BA8C-induced DNA damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was determined by comet assay. The DNA damage was quantified by the image analysis system using Comet Score™ software. ARPE-19 cell viability was determined by CellTiter 96 AQueous one-solution cell proliferation assay kit. Intracellular GSH levels were measured by Ellman's reagent. Results: Incubation of serum-starved ARPE-19 cells with LBP and BA8C caused significant DNA damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The DNA damage and cell death incurred by LBP and BA8C were significantly prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) but not by α -tocopherol ascorbic acid (T AA). Furthermore, BSO-induced GSH depletion in ARPE-19 cells caused a significant elevation in LBP- and BA8C-induced DNA damage, whereas increased GSH levels in ARPE-19 cells prevented it. Conclusions: Our results suggest that breakdown products of dietary carotenoids could be genotoxic in ARPE-19 cells. LBP-induced genotoxic effects could worsen oxidative stress. The intracellular GSH pool in ARPE-19 cells might play a critical role in carotenoid breakdown products-induced genotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)737-747
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Antioxidants
  • Carotenoid breakdown products
  • Carotenoids
  • DNA damage
  • Lutein breakdown products

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Genotoxic effects of carotenoid breakdown products in human retinal pigment epithelial cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this