Compared a group of school-age children with spina bifida (n = 75) between the ages of 6 and 12 years with an age- and IQ-matched control group of normal children (n = 15). As predicted, the spina bifida children spent less time using goal-directed behaviors and more time in simple manipulation of the toys compared to the normal children. There were no group differences between the spina bifida and normal children's perceived competence but parents of the spina bifida children rated their children as having lower cognitive and physical competence. Associations were found between goal-directed behaviors and perceived self-competence for children in the spina bifida group but not the normal group.
- Goal-directed behavior
- Perceived competence
- Spina bifida
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology