Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Part I. Issues on prevention of nosocomial pneumonia - 1994

O. C. Tablan, L. J. Anderson, N. H. Arden, R. F. Breiman, J. C. Butler, M. M. McNeil, W. J. Hierholzer, J. S. Garner, D. E. Craven, D. W. Fleming, S. W. Forlenza, M. J. Gilchrist, D. A. Goldmann, R. W. Haley, C. G. Mayhall, R. D. McCormick, R. L. Nichols, C. C. Sanders, E. S. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

95 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Most patients with nosocomial pneumonia are those with extremes of age, severe underlying disease, immunosuppression, depressed sensorium, and cardiopulmonary disease, and those who have had thoraco-abdominal surgery. Although patients with mechanically assisted ventilation do not comprise a major proportion of patients with nosocomial pneumonia, they have the highest risk of developing the infection. Most bacterial nosocomial pneumonias occur by aspiration of bacteria colonizing the oropharynx or upper gastrointestinal tract of the patient. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of nosocomial bacterial pneumonia because they alter first-line patient defenses. Pneumonias due to Legionella spp., Aspergillus spp., and influenza virus are often caused by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection usually follows viral inoculation of the conjunctivae or nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. Traditional preventive measures for nosocomial pneumonia include decreasing aspiration by the patient, preventing cross-contamination or colonization via hands of personnel, appropriate disinfection or sterilization of respiratory-therapy devices, use of available vaccines to protect against particular infections, and education of hospital staff and patients. New measures under investigation involve reducing oropharyngeal and gastric colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-292
Number of pages46
JournalAmerican Journal of Infection Control
Volume22
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pneumonia
Guidelines
Bacterial Pneumonia
Cross Infection
Hand
Respiratory Therapy
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Legionella
Oropharynx
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Nasal Mucosa
Conjunctiva
Disinfection
Aspergillus
Orthomyxoviridae
Aerosols
Artificial Respiration
Intubation
Immunosuppression
Inhalation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Tablan, O. C., Anderson, L. J., Arden, N. H., Breiman, R. F., Butler, J. C., McNeil, M. M., ... Wong, E. S. (1994). Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Part I. Issues on prevention of nosocomial pneumonia - 1994. American Journal of Infection Control, 22(4), 247-292.

Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Part I. Issues on prevention of nosocomial pneumonia - 1994. / Tablan, O. C.; Anderson, L. J.; Arden, N. H.; Breiman, R. F.; Butler, J. C.; McNeil, M. M.; Hierholzer, W. J.; Garner, J. S.; Craven, D. E.; Fleming, D. W.; Forlenza, S. W.; Gilchrist, M. J.; Goldmann, D. A.; Haley, R. W.; Mayhall, C. G.; McCormick, R. D.; Nichols, R. L.; Sanders, C. C.; Wong, E. S.

In: American Journal of Infection Control, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1994, p. 247-292.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tablan, OC, Anderson, LJ, Arden, NH, Breiman, RF, Butler, JC, McNeil, MM, Hierholzer, WJ, Garner, JS, Craven, DE, Fleming, DW, Forlenza, SW, Gilchrist, MJ, Goldmann, DA, Haley, RW, Mayhall, CG, McCormick, RD, Nichols, RL, Sanders, CC & Wong, ES 1994, 'Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Part I. Issues on prevention of nosocomial pneumonia - 1994', American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 247-292.
Tablan, O. C. ; Anderson, L. J. ; Arden, N. H. ; Breiman, R. F. ; Butler, J. C. ; McNeil, M. M. ; Hierholzer, W. J. ; Garner, J. S. ; Craven, D. E. ; Fleming, D. W. ; Forlenza, S. W. ; Gilchrist, M. J. ; Goldmann, D. A. ; Haley, R. W. ; Mayhall, C. G. ; McCormick, R. D. ; Nichols, R. L. ; Sanders, C. C. ; Wong, E. S. / Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. Part I. Issues on prevention of nosocomial pneumonia - 1994. In: American Journal of Infection Control. 1994 ; Vol. 22, No. 4. pp. 247-292.
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