Health determinants and risk factors for coronary artery disease among older Filipinos in rural communities

Marysol C. Cacciata, Irma Alvarado, Mini M. Jose, Lorraine Evangelista

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Aims Lifestyle modifications and healthy behavioural regimens are critical in preventing coronary artery disease (CAD) and other important health conditions. Little is known about the risk for CAD and health behaviour among older adults (<60 years) living in rural areas in the Philippines. Compare risk profiles and health behaviours of Filipinos at low-vs. moderate-to-high-risk for CAD and examine the association between demographic variables, risk profiles, and health behaviours. Methods and results A comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample of 427 Filipinos (≤60 years old). Data on sociodemographic characteristics, risk profiles, and health behaviours (e.g. diet, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol use) were collected. Ten-year CAD risk was estimated using the non-laboratory-based Framingham algorithm. Of the 427 participants [mean age was 69.2 ± 6.7 years, primarily women (65%), married (52.8%)], 319 (75%) were at low risk, and 108 (25%) were at moderate-to-high-risk for CAD. Filipinos at moderate to high risk were more likely to have cardiometabolic diseases (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, and obesity, all P's < 0.001). Health behaviours did not differ between the two groups except for the consumption of ≥5 servings of fruit, higher in the low-risk group. Conclusion Data showed highly consistent and convergent evidence among older Filipinos living in rural areas at high risk for CAD and other health conditions. These findings underscore the need for culturally sensitive guidance to improve CAD outcomes for moderate to high-risk older adults living in rural areas, including education and counselling on risk and risk-reducing strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-571
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021


  • Cardiometabolic risks
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Filipinos
  • Health determinant
  • Philippines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medical–Surgical
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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