Helicobacter pylori and Its Role in Gastric Cancer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Gastric cancer is a challenging public health concern worldwide and remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The primary risk factor implicated in gastric cancer development is infection with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori induces chronic inflammation affecting the gastric epithelium, which can lead to DNA damage and the promotion of precancerous lesions. Disease manifestations associated with H. pylori are attributed to virulence factors with multiple activities, and its capacity to subvert host immunity. One of the most significant H. pylori virulence determinants is the cagPAI gene cluster, which encodes a type IV secretion system and the CagA toxin. This secretion system allows H. pylori to inject the CagA oncoprotein into host cells, causing multiple cellular perturbations. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection, only a small percentage of affected individuals develop significant clinical outcomes, while most remain asymptomatic. Therefore, understanding how H. pylori triggers carcinogenesis and its immune evasion mechanisms is critical in preventing gastric cancer and mitigating the burden of this life-threatening disease. This review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of H. pylori infection, its association with gastric cancer and other gastric diseases, and how it subverts the host immune system to establish persistent infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1312
JournalMicroorganisms
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • cag pathogenicity island
  • cytotoxin-associated gene A
  • gastric cancer
  • immune evasion
  • oncoprotein
  • vacuolating toxin A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology

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