Background: Hematoma growth is an independent determinant of outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Predictors of hematoma expansion are poorly defined. Our aim is to determine predictors of hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. Methods: We reviewed our prospective database of patients with ICH between January 2009 and June 2012. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of hematoma expansion. Hematoma volume was calculated by thin volumetric cuts using special software. Expansion was defined as 33% increase in hematoma volume over 24 hours. We compared risk factors, laboratory parameters, medications and CT findings between the two groups using Fisher's exact test. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of expansion. Results: We identified 200 patients with ICH. On univariate analysis, patients with hematoma expansion were more likely to have Warfarin use (37% vs. 11% p = 0.001), low admission GCS (9 ± 4, 11 ± 4, p = 0.003), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (79% vs. 45% p = 0.002) and hydrocephalus (43% vs. 22% p = 0.032). On multivariate regression analysis, prior Warfarin use (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3,10.3; p = 0.016) and IVH (OR = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.5,20.9; p = 0.009) were significant predictors of hematoma expansion. The ICU length of stay (8 ± 8 vs. 4 ± 6, p = 0.004), intubation rate (82% vs. 32%, p = 0.034), and hospital mortality (68% vs. 20%, p = < 0.001) were significantly higher among patients with hematoma expansion. Conclusion: Patient with prior Warfarin use and IVHs are at risk of hematoma expansion. Aggressive measures to prevent hematoma growth are important in these patients.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
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