Heparin dosing and monitoring for cardiopulmonary bypass. A comparison of techniques with measurement of subclinical plasma coagulation

G. P. Gravlee, W. S. Haddon, H. K. Rothberger, S. A. Mills, A. T. Rogers, V. E. Bean, D. H. Buss, D. S. Prough, A. R. Cordell

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152 Scopus citations

Abstract

Subclinical plasma coagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass has been associated with marked platelet and clotting factor consumption in monkeys. To better define subclinical coagulation in man, we measured plasma fibrinopeptide A concentrations before, during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were assigned to one of three groups of heparin management: group 1 (n = 10)-initial heparin dose 300 IU/kg, with supplemental heparin if the activated coagulation time fell below 400 seconds; group 2 (n = 6)-initial heparin dose 250 IU/kg, with supplemental heparin if activated coagulation time was less than 400 seconds; and group 3 (n = 5)-initial heparin dose 350 to 400 IU/kg, with supplemental heparin if whole blood heparin concentration was less than or equal to 4.1 IU/ml. Activated coagulation time and heparin concentration were measured every 30 minutes during cardiopulmonary bypass, and fibrinopeptide A was measured at hypothermia, normothermia, and whenever activated coagulation time was less than 400 seconds. Quantitative and qualitative blood clotting competence was assessed after cardiopulmonary bypass, including mediastinal drainage for the first 24 hours. Fibrinopeptide A values were markedly elevated during cardiopulmonary bypass but were well below the levels present before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Fibrinopeptide A correlated inversely with heparin concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass (r = -0.46, p = 0.03), but higher fibrinopeptide A levels during cardiopulmonary bypass did not correlate with postcardiopulmonary bypass coagulopathy. Group 3 patients received the highest heparin doses (p < 0.05) and had the greatest postoperative blood loss (p < 0.05). Protamine dose and heparin concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass correlated best with postoperative mediastinal drainage. Our findings support the following conclusions: (1) compensated subclinical plasma coagulation activity occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass despite activated coagulation time greater than 400 seconds or heparin concentration greater than or equal to 4.1 IU/ml; (2) post-cardiopulmonary bypass mediastinal drainage correlates strongly with increased heparin concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass (p < 0.05) and protamine dose (p < 0.05); and (3) during cardiopulmonary bypass at both normothermia and hypothermia, activated coagulation times greater than 350 seconds result in acceptable fibrinopeptide A levels and post-cardiopulmonary bypass blood clotting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-527
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume99
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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