Hepatocellular carcinoma: Diagnosis, treatment algorithms, and imaging appearance after transarterial chemoembolization

Patrick Vande Lune, Ahmed K. Abdel Aal, Sergio Klimkowski, Jessica G. Zarzour, Andrew J. Gunn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, with incidence increasing worldwide. Unfortu-nately, the overall prognosis for patients with HCC is poor and many patients present with advanced stages of disease that preclude curative therapies. Diagnostic and interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of patients with HCC. Diagnostic radiologists can use contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound to diagnose and stage HCC, without the need for pathologic confirmation, by following established criteria. Once staged, the interventional radiologist can treat the appropriate patients with percutaneous ablation, transarterial chemoem-bolization, or radioembolization. Follow-up imaging after these liver-directed therapies for HCC can be characterized according to various radiologic response criteria; although, enhance-ment-based criteria, such as European Association for the Study of the Liver and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, are more reflective of treatment effect in HCC. Newer imaging technologies like volumetric analysis, dual-energy CT, cone beam CT and perfusion CT may provide additional benefits for patients with HCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-188
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Diagnostic radiology
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Interventional oncology
  • Interventional radiology
  • Response criteria
  • Transarterial chemoembolization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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