Highlighted topic signals mediating skeletal muscle remodeling by activity mechanisms regulating muscle mass during disuse atrophy and rehabilitation in humans

Kanagaraj Marimuthu, Andrew J. Murton, Paul L. Greenhaff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

75 Scopus citations

Abstract

Muscle mass loss accompanies periods of bedrest and limb immobilization in humans and requires rehabilitation exercise to effectively restore mass and function. Although recent evidence points to an early and transient rise in muscle protein breakdown contributing to this decline in muscle mass, the driving factor seems to be a reduction in muscle protein synthesis, not least in part due to the development of anabolic resistance to amino acid provision. Although the AKT signaling pathway has been identified in small animals as central to the regulation of muscle protein synthesis, several studies in humans have now demonstrated a disassociation between AKT signaling and muscle protein synthesis during feeding, exercise, and immobilization, suggesting that the mechanisms regulating protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle are more complex than initially thought (at least in non-inflammatory states). During rehabilitation, exercise-induced myogenesis may in part be responsible for the recovery of muscle mass. Rapid and sustained exercise-induced suppression of myostatin mRNA expression, that precedes any gain in muscle mass, points to this, along with other myogenic proteins, as being potential regulators of muscle regeneration during exercise rehabilitation in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)555-560
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume110
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011

Keywords

  • AKT signaling
  • Hind-limb suspension
  • Limb immobilization
  • Muscle protein synthesis
  • Myogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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