Four major triterpenoids (ganoderic acids C2, B, K and H) in rat plasma after oral administration of G. lucidum extract were analyzed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma samples taken from rats were acidified with hydrochloric acid and extracted with dichloromethane-ethyl acetate (90:10). The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 35°C, with a linear gradient of acetonitrile and 0.03% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/ v), at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The four triterpenoids and internal standard (hydrocortisone) were detected at a wavelength 252 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.99) within test ranges. The relative deviation of this method was less than 10% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the accuracy ranged from 89 to 108%. The extract recovery for the four triterpenoids and internal standard ranged from 95 to 67%, and the QC samples were found to be stable according to the results of the stability study. This is the first report on determination of the major triterpenoids in rat plasma after oral administration of G. lucidum extract and the results provided a firm basis for clarifying the pharmacological effect of G. lucidum and evaluating the clinical applications of this medicinal fungus.