Human and equine infection with alphaviruses and flaviviruses in panamá during 2010: A cross-Sectional study of household contacts during an encephalitis outbreak

Jean Paul Carrera, Karoun H. Bagamian, Amelia P. Travassos Da Rosa, Eryu Wang, Davis Beltran, Nathan D. Gundaker, Blas Armien, Gianfranco Arroyo, Néstor Sosa, Juan Miguel Pascale, Anayansi Valderrama, Robert B. Tesh, Amy Y. Vittor, Scott Weaver

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Abstract

Members of the genera Alphavirus (family Togaviridae) and Flavivirus (family Flaviridae) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and of equine cases with neurological disease signs. Serum samples were screened using a hemagglutination inhibition test, and human results were confirmed using plaque reduction neutralization tests. A generalized linear model was used to evaluate the human MADV and VEEV seroprevalence ratios by age (in tercile) and gender. Overall, antibody prevalence for human MADV infection was 19.4%, VEEV 33.3%, and Mayaro virus 1.4%. In comparison with individuals aged 2–20 years, people from older age groups (21–41 and > 41 years) were five times more likely to have antibodies against VEEV, whereas the MADV prevalence ratio was independent of age. The overall seroprevalence of MADV in equids was 26.3%, VEEV 29.4%, West Nile virus (WNV) 2.6%, and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) was 63.0%. Taken together, our results suggest that multiple arboviruses are circulating in human and equine populations in Panamá. Our findings of a lack of increase in the seroprevalence ratio with age support the hypothesis of recent MADV exposure to people living in the affected region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1798-1804
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume98
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Carrera, J. P., Bagamian, K. H., Travassos Da Rosa, A. P., Wang, E., Beltran, D., Gundaker, N. D., Armien, B., Arroyo, G., Sosa, N., Pascale, J. M., Valderrama, A., Tesh, R. B., Vittor, A. Y., & Weaver, S. (2018). Human and equine infection with alphaviruses and flaviviruses in panamá during 2010: A cross-Sectional study of household contacts during an encephalitis outbreak. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98(6), 1798-1804. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0679