Human retinal cadmium accumulation as a factor in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration

N. K. Wills, N. Kalariya, V-M Ramanujam, J. R. Lewis, S. Haji Abdollahi, A. Husain, F. J G M van Kuijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cadmium is a naturally occurring, highly toxic, metallic element. It pollutes the environment as a result of industrial activity and accumulates in human tissues with a long biological half-life. Cadmium content has been demonstrated to increase in human retinal tissues as a function of age and tobacco smokers have approximately twice as much cadmium in retinal tissues than non-smokers. Smoking is also a key environmental risk factor for the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies have shown that urinary cadmium levels (a measure of Cd body burden) are higher in smokers who have AMD. We now report the Cd measurements in human retinal tissues from eyes afflicted with AMD compared to non-diseased eyes (controls) from age-matched donors. Human donor eyes frozen under argon gas were assessed for AMD severity using color stereoscopic fundus photographs and the Minnesota Grading System. Cadmium, zinc and, copper levels were measured in retinal tissues (neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium and choroid) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and graphite furnace spectrophotometry and values were normalized to tissue protein levels. Higher Cd levels were found in the neural retina and RPE for eyes afflicted with AMD compared to controls in males, differences were not statistically significant in females. The results indicate that higher retinal cadmium burdens are associated with the presence of AMD at least in males and suggest possible gender differences in the metabolism of metals in the human retina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-87
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Volume89
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2009

Fingerprint

Macular Degeneration
Cadmium
Retina
Body Burden
Retinal Diseases
Choroid
Graphite
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Argon
Poisons
Spectrophotometry
Tobacco
Half-Life
Zinc
Copper
Mass Spectrometry
Color
Gases
Smoking
Metals

Keywords

  • age-related macular degeneration
  • aging
  • cadmium
  • choroid
  • copper
  • gender
  • human
  • retina
  • RPE
  • zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Wills, N. K., Kalariya, N., Ramanujam, V-M., Lewis, J. R., Haji Abdollahi, S., Husain, A., & van Kuijk, F. J. G. M. (2009). Human retinal cadmium accumulation as a factor in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. Experimental Eye Research, 89(1), 79-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2009.02.014

Human retinal cadmium accumulation as a factor in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. / Wills, N. K.; Kalariya, N.; Ramanujam, V-M; Lewis, J. R.; Haji Abdollahi, S.; Husain, A.; van Kuijk, F. J G M.

In: Experimental Eye Research, Vol. 89, No. 1, 15.06.2009, p. 79-87.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wills, NK, Kalariya, N, Ramanujam, V-M, Lewis, JR, Haji Abdollahi, S, Husain, A & van Kuijk, FJGM 2009, 'Human retinal cadmium accumulation as a factor in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 79-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2009.02.014
Wills, N. K. ; Kalariya, N. ; Ramanujam, V-M ; Lewis, J. R. ; Haji Abdollahi, S. ; Husain, A. ; van Kuijk, F. J G M. / Human retinal cadmium accumulation as a factor in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. In: Experimental Eye Research. 2009 ; Vol. 89, No. 1. pp. 79-87.
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