Hypotensive resuscitation of multiple hemorrhages using crystalloid and colloids

Abraham D. Rafie, Paul A. Rath, Michael W. Michell, Robert A. Kirschner, Donald Deyo, Donald S. Prough, James J. Grady, George Kramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Hypotensive resuscitation has been advocated as a better means to perform field resuscitation of penetrating trauma. Our hypothesis is that hypotensive resuscitation using either crystalloid or colloid provides equivalent or improved metabolic function while reducing the overall fluid requirement for resuscitation of hemorrhage. We compared hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation of hemorrhage using lactated Ringer's (LR) with hypotensive resuscitation using Hextend™ (Hex), 6% hetastarch in isotonic buffered saline. Instrumented conscious sheep were hemorrhaged in three separate bleeds, 25 mL/kg at T0 and 5 mL/kg at both T50 and T70. Resuscitation was started at T30 and continued until T180. Hypotensive resuscitation to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mmHg was performed with LR or Hex using a closed-loop resuscitation (CLR) system for a LR-65 and Hex-65 treatment protocol. A control treatment protocol was resuscitation with LR to a MAP target of 90 mmHg, LR-90. All treatment protocols were successfully resuscitated to near target levels. Two animals in the hypotensive treatment protocols died during the second and third bleedings, one in the LR-65 and one in the Hex-65 treatment protocol. Mean infused volumes were 61.4 ± 11.3, 18.0 ± 5.9,* and 11.6 ± 1.9* mL/kg in the LR-90, LR-65, and Hex-65 treatments, respectively (*P < 0.05 versus LR-90). Mean minimum base excess (BE) values were +1.9 ± 1.4, -5.8 ± 4.3, and -5.9 ± 4.0 mEq/L in the LR-90, LR-65, and Hex-65 treatments, respectively. Hypotensive resuscitation with LR greatly reduced volume requirements as compared with normotensive resuscitation, and Hex achieved additional volume sparing. However, trends toward lower BE values and the occurrence of deaths only in the hypotensive treatment protocols suggest that resuscitation to a target MAP of 65 mmHg may be too low for optimal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)262-269
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Circulatory shock
  • Closed-loop therapy
  • Conscious sheep
  • Fluid therapy
  • Hetastarch
  • Hypotensive resuscitation
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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