Identification of a novel SP3 binding site in the promoter of human IGFBP4 gene: Role of SP3 and AP-1 in regulating promoter activity in CaCo2 cells

Qiang Shen, Pomila Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4/ BP4) gene expression plays an important role in the transition from proliferation to differentiation of a human colon cancer cell line, CaCo2. We recently cloned and identified multiple cis elements (including putative binding sites for activator protein 1 (AP-1) and specificity proteins (Sps)) in the promoter of human BP4 gene, and measured a significant upregulation of the promoter activity in response to c-Jun. We therefore examined the role of the single AP-1 site (-869/-863) and other cis elements, in regulating the expression of hBP4 gene, in the current studies. Deletion of a 25 bp sequence from -872 to -848, which contains the AP-1 site, significantly reduced BP4 promoter activity by approximately 50%. Surprisingly, mutation of the AP-1 site did not produce significant alteration in the activity of the BP4 promoter. However, mutation of 7 bp (5′-TGCTGCA) at the 3′ end of the AP-1 site resulted in significantly decreasing the promoter activity by >50%. Proteins bound to the 25bp probe (-872/-848) could be supershifted by antibodies specific for JunD and Sp3 in an EMSA. JunD binding was abolished on mutation of the AP-1 site and Sp3 binding was abolished on mutation of the 7bp at -861/-855; binding of the purified Sp3 protein to the 25bp probe was similarly abolished on mutation of the newly discovered Sp3 binding site (TGCTGCA). BP4 promoter activity was upregulated in insect cells in response to Sp3 expression, confirming a functional importance of the novel Sp3 binding site. These studies suggest that the Sp3 binding site, rather than the AP-1 site, may be playing a significant role in regulating the expression of IGFBP4 gene in CaCo2 cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2454-2464
Number of pages11
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004



  • AP-1 binding site
  • Colon cancer cells
  • IGFBP4 promoter
  • JunD
  • Sp3 binding site
  • c-Jun

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research

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