Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-dependent apoptosis is important in the elimination of damaged or abnormal cells from normal tissues in vivo. Previously, we have shown that TGF-β inhibits the growth of rat intestinal epithelial (RIE)-1 cells. However, RIE-1 cells are relatively resistant to TGF-β-induced apoptosis due to a low endogenous Smad3-to-Akt ratio. Overexpression of Smad3 sensitizes RIE-1 cells (RIE-1/Smad3) to TGF-β-induced apoptosis by altering the Smad3-to-Akt ratio in favor of apoptosis. In this study, we utilized a genomic approach to identify potential downstream target genes that are regulated by TGF-β/Smad3. Total RNA samples were analyzed using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. We found that TGF-β regulated 518 probe sets corresponding to its target genes. Interestingly, among the known apoptotic genes included in the microarray analyses, only caspase-3 was induced, which was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, TGF-β activated caspase-3 through protein cleavage. Upstream of caspase-3, TGF-β induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and cleavage of caspase-9, which suggests that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway mediates TGF-β-induced apoptosis in RIE-1/Smad3 cells.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2007|
- Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays
- Transforming growth factor-β
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)