Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the severe asthma research program

Wendy C. Moore, Deborah A. Meyers, Sally E. Wenzel, W. Gerald Teague, Huashi Li, Xingnan Li, Ralph D'Agostino, Mario Castro, Douglas Curran-Everett, Anne M. Fitzpatrick, Benjamin Gaston, Nizar N. Jarjour, Ronald Sorkness, William J. Calhoun, Kian Fan Chung, Suzy A.A. Comhair, Raed A. Dweik, Elliot Israel, Stephen P. Peters, William W. BusseSerpil C. Erzurum, Eugene R. Bleecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1738 Scopus citations


Rationale: The Severe Asthma Research Program cohort includes subjects with persistent asthma who have undergone detailed phenotypic characterization. Previous univariate methods compared features of mild, moderate, and severe asthma. Objectives: To identify novel asthma phenotypes using an unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Methods: Reduction of the initial 628 variables to 34 core variables was achieved by elimination of redundant data and transformation of categorical variables into ranked ordinal composite variables. Cluster analysis was performed on 726 subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Five groups were identified. Subjects in Cluster 1 (n = 110) have early onset atopic asthma with normal lung function treated with two or fewer controller medications (82%) and minimal health care utilization. Cluster 2 (n = 321) consists of subjects with early-onset atopic asthma and preserved lung function but increased medication requirements (29% on three or more medications) and health care utilization. Cluster 3 (n=59) is a unique group of mostly older obese women with late-onset nonatopic asthma, moderate reductions in FEV 1, and frequent oral corticosteroid use to manage exacerbations. Subjects in Clusters 4 (n = 120) and 5 (n = 116) have severe airflow obstruction with bronchodilator responsiveness but differ in to their ability to attain normal lung function, age of asthma onset, atopic status, and use of oral corticosteroids. Conclusions: Five distinct clinical phenotypes of asthma have been identified using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. All clusters contain subjects who meet the American Thoracic Society definition of severe asthma, which supports clinical heterogeneity in asthma and the need for new approaches for the classification of disease severity in asthma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-323
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Asthma phenotype
  • Cluster analysis
  • Definition
  • Severe asthma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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