IL-33-Dependent Endothelial Activation Contributes to Apoptosis and Renal Injury in Orientia tsutsugamushi-Infected Mice

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Abstract

Endothelial cells (EC) are the main target for Orientia tsutsugamushi infection and EC dysfunction is a hallmark of severe scrub typhus in patients. However, the molecular basis of EC dysfunction and its impact on infection outcome are poorly understood. We found that C57BL/6 mice that received a lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain had a significant increase in the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2L in the kidneys and liver, but a rapid reduction of IL-33 in the lungs. We also found exacerbated EC stress and activation in the kidneys of infected mice, as evidenced by elevated angiopoietin (Ang) 2/Ang1 ratio, increased endothelin 1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Such responses were significantly attenuated in the IL-33-/- mice. Importantly, IL-33-/- mice also had markedly attenuated disease due to reduced EC stress and cellular apoptosis. To confirm the biological role of IL-33, we challenged wild-type (WT) mice with a sub-lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi and gave mice recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) every 2 days for 10 days. Exogenous IL-33 significantly increased disease severity and lethality, which correlated with increased EC stress and activation, increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines, but decreased anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 in the kidneys. To further examine the role of EC stress, we infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. We found an infection dose-dependent increase in the expression of IL-33, ST2L soluble ST2 (sST2), and the Ang2/Ang1 ratio at 24 and 48 hours post-infection. This study indicates a pathogenic role of alarmin IL-33 in a murine model of scrub typhus and highlights infection-triggered EC damage and IL-33-mediated pathological changes during the course of Orientia infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0004467
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 4 2016

Fingerprint

Orientia tsutsugamushi
Apoptosis
Kidney
Endothelial Cells
Wounds and Injuries
Infection
Scrub Typhus
Chemokine CXCL1
Interleukin-33
Angiopoietin-2
Chemokine CXCL2
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Endothelin-1
Inbred C57BL Mouse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

@article{b66bb9cdcd7c4fa6a92720d4aceb72d1,
title = "IL-33-Dependent Endothelial Activation Contributes to Apoptosis and Renal Injury in Orientia tsutsugamushi-Infected Mice",
abstract = "Endothelial cells (EC) are the main target for Orientia tsutsugamushi infection and EC dysfunction is a hallmark of severe scrub typhus in patients. However, the molecular basis of EC dysfunction and its impact on infection outcome are poorly understood. We found that C57BL/6 mice that received a lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain had a significant increase in the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2L in the kidneys and liver, but a rapid reduction of IL-33 in the lungs. We also found exacerbated EC stress and activation in the kidneys of infected mice, as evidenced by elevated angiopoietin (Ang) 2/Ang1 ratio, increased endothelin 1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Such responses were significantly attenuated in the IL-33-/- mice. Importantly, IL-33-/- mice also had markedly attenuated disease due to reduced EC stress and cellular apoptosis. To confirm the biological role of IL-33, we challenged wild-type (WT) mice with a sub-lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi and gave mice recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) every 2 days for 10 days. Exogenous IL-33 significantly increased disease severity and lethality, which correlated with increased EC stress and activation, increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines, but decreased anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 in the kidneys. To further examine the role of EC stress, we infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. We found an infection dose-dependent increase in the expression of IL-33, ST2L soluble ST2 (sST2), and the Ang2/Ang1 ratio at 24 and 48 hours post-infection. This study indicates a pathogenic role of alarmin IL-33 in a murine model of scrub typhus and highlights infection-triggered EC damage and IL-33-mediated pathological changes during the course of Orientia infection.",
author = "Thomas Shelite and Yuejin Liang and Hui Wang and Mendell, {Nicole L.} and Brandon Trent and Jiaren Sun and Bin Gong and Guang Xu and Haitao Hu and Donald Bouyer and Lynn Soong",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pntd.0004467",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "10",
journal = "PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases",
issn = "1935-2727",
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T1 - IL-33-Dependent Endothelial Activation Contributes to Apoptosis and Renal Injury in Orientia tsutsugamushi-Infected Mice

AU - Shelite, Thomas

AU - Liang, Yuejin

AU - Wang, Hui

AU - Mendell, Nicole L.

AU - Trent, Brandon

AU - Sun, Jiaren

AU - Gong, Bin

AU - Xu, Guang

AU - Hu, Haitao

AU - Bouyer, Donald

AU - Soong, Lynn

PY - 2016/3/4

Y1 - 2016/3/4

N2 - Endothelial cells (EC) are the main target for Orientia tsutsugamushi infection and EC dysfunction is a hallmark of severe scrub typhus in patients. However, the molecular basis of EC dysfunction and its impact on infection outcome are poorly understood. We found that C57BL/6 mice that received a lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain had a significant increase in the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2L in the kidneys and liver, but a rapid reduction of IL-33 in the lungs. We also found exacerbated EC stress and activation in the kidneys of infected mice, as evidenced by elevated angiopoietin (Ang) 2/Ang1 ratio, increased endothelin 1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Such responses were significantly attenuated in the IL-33-/- mice. Importantly, IL-33-/- mice also had markedly attenuated disease due to reduced EC stress and cellular apoptosis. To confirm the biological role of IL-33, we challenged wild-type (WT) mice with a sub-lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi and gave mice recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) every 2 days for 10 days. Exogenous IL-33 significantly increased disease severity and lethality, which correlated with increased EC stress and activation, increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines, but decreased anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 in the kidneys. To further examine the role of EC stress, we infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. We found an infection dose-dependent increase in the expression of IL-33, ST2L soluble ST2 (sST2), and the Ang2/Ang1 ratio at 24 and 48 hours post-infection. This study indicates a pathogenic role of alarmin IL-33 in a murine model of scrub typhus and highlights infection-triggered EC damage and IL-33-mediated pathological changes during the course of Orientia infection.

AB - Endothelial cells (EC) are the main target for Orientia tsutsugamushi infection and EC dysfunction is a hallmark of severe scrub typhus in patients. However, the molecular basis of EC dysfunction and its impact on infection outcome are poorly understood. We found that C57BL/6 mice that received a lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain had a significant increase in the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2L in the kidneys and liver, but a rapid reduction of IL-33 in the lungs. We also found exacerbated EC stress and activation in the kidneys of infected mice, as evidenced by elevated angiopoietin (Ang) 2/Ang1 ratio, increased endothelin 1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Such responses were significantly attenuated in the IL-33-/- mice. Importantly, IL-33-/- mice also had markedly attenuated disease due to reduced EC stress and cellular apoptosis. To confirm the biological role of IL-33, we challenged wild-type (WT) mice with a sub-lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi and gave mice recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) every 2 days for 10 days. Exogenous IL-33 significantly increased disease severity and lethality, which correlated with increased EC stress and activation, increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines, but decreased anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 in the kidneys. To further examine the role of EC stress, we infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. We found an infection dose-dependent increase in the expression of IL-33, ST2L soluble ST2 (sST2), and the Ang2/Ang1 ratio at 24 and 48 hours post-infection. This study indicates a pathogenic role of alarmin IL-33 in a murine model of scrub typhus and highlights infection-triggered EC damage and IL-33-mediated pathological changes during the course of Orientia infection.

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