Background: IMMUNEPOTENT CRP (ICRP) can be cytotoxic to cancer cell lines. However, its widespread use in cancer patients has been limited by the absence of conclusive data on the molecular mechanism of its action. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of cell death induced by ICRP in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Methods: Cell death, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were evaluated in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines after ICRP treatment. Caspase-dependence and ROS-dependence were evaluated using QVD.oph and NAC pre-treatment in cell death analysis. DAMPs release, ER stress (eIF2-α phosphorylation) and autophagosome formation were analyzed as well. Additionally, the role of autophagosomes in cell death induced by ICRP was evaluated using SP-1 pre-treatment in cell death in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Results: ICRP induces cell death, reaching CC50 at 1.25 U/mL and 1.5 U/mL in HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and cell cycle arrest were observed after ICRP CC50 treatment in both cell lines, inducing the same mechanism, a type of cell death independent of caspases, relying on ROS production. Additionally, ICRP-induced cell death involves features of immunogenic cell death such as P-eIF2α and CRT exposure, as well as, ATP and HMGB1 release. Furthermore, ICRP induces ROS-dependent autophagosome formation that acts as a pro-survival mechanism. Conclusions: ICRP induces a non-apoptotic cell death that requires an oxidative stress to take place, involving mitochondrial damage, ROS-dependent autophagosome formation, ER stress and DAMPs' release. These data indicate that ICRP could work together with classic apoptotic inductors to attack cancer cells from different mechanisms, and that ICRP-induced cell death might activate an immune response against cancer cells.
- Bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract
- Transfer factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research