Human infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne pathogen in the family Nairoviridae, can result in a spectrum of outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection through mild clinical signs to severe or fatal disease. Studies of CCHFV immunobiology have investigated the relationship between innate and adaptive immune responses with disease severity, attempting to elucidate factors associated with differential outcomes. In this article, we begin by highlighting unanswered questions, then review current efforts to answer them. We discuss in detail current clinical studies and research in laboratory animals on CCHF, including immune targets of infection and adaptive and innate immune responses. We summarize data about the role of the immune response in natural infections of animals and humans and experimental studies in vitro and in vivo and from evaluating immune-based therapies and vaccines, and present recommendations for future research.
- Animal models
- Clinical studies
- Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
- Hemorrhagic fever
ASJC Scopus subject areas