Immunopathogenesis of non-healing American cutaneous leishmaniasis and progressive visceral leishmaniasis

Lynn Soong, Calvin A. Henard, Peter Melby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The outcomes of Leishmania infection are determined by host immune and nutrition status, parasite species, and co-infection with other pathogens. While subclinical infection and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are common, uncontrolled parasite replication can lead to non-healing local lesions or visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is known that infection control requires Th1-differentiation cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, and IL-27) and Th1 cell and macrophage activation. However, there is no generalized consensus for the mechanisms of host susceptibility. The recent studies on regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing cells help explain the effector T cell responses that occur independently of the known Th1/Th2 cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on the immunopathogenesis of non-healing American CL and progressive VL. We summarize recent evidence from human and animal studies that reveals the mechanisms of dysregulated, hyper-responses to Leishmania braziliensis, as well as the presence of disease-promoting or the absence of protective responses to Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. We highlight immune-mediated parasite growth and immunopathogenesis, with an emphasis on the putative roles of IL-17 and its related cytokines as well as arginase. A better understanding of the quality and regulation of innate immunity and T cell responses triggered by Leishmania will aid in the rational control of pathology and the infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)735-751
Number of pages17
JournalSeminars in Immunopathology
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2012

Fingerprint

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Th1 Cells
Parasites
Interleukin-17
Leishmania
Infection Control
Interleukin-27
Leishmania braziliensis
Cytokines
T-Lymphocytes
Leishmania donovani
Arginase
Th2 Cells
Asymptomatic Infections
Interleukin-18
Macrophage Activation
Regulatory T-Lymphocytes
Nutritional Status
Coinfection

Keywords

  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Immune regulation
  • Leishmania
  • Pathogenesis
  • Visceral leishmaniasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Immunopathogenesis of non-healing American cutaneous leishmaniasis and progressive visceral leishmaniasis. / Soong, Lynn; Henard, Calvin A.; Melby, Peter.

In: Seminars in Immunopathology, Vol. 34, No. 6, 11.2012, p. 735-751.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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